Cubans getting bolder in acts against government
NORA GÁMEZ TORRES
They call it “The Valley of Prehistory,” an odd park with oversized
sculptures of dinosaurs and other ancient animals in the Baconao
National Park on the outskirts of Santiago de Cuba. And that’s where
hundreds of dissidents, neighbors and supporters turned up recently, in
what was designed as a fun outing for children as well as a show of the
growing popularity of Cuba’s largest opposition group.
A video of the outing shot by the dissident Cuban Patriotic Union, known
as UNPACU, shows images unthinkable only a few years ago in an island
where the government systematically dismisses its opponents as
microscopic groups of “mercenaries” financed by the U.S. government.
Ignoring the official propaganda, hundreds of people took part in the
outing and listened to UNPACU leader José Daniel Ferrer detail the
activities planned for the children, which also included a free lunch
and stops at a nearby beach and an aquarium.
Ferrer said UNPACU organized the outing as a “symbolic” message on the
same weekend the Cuban Communist Party held its VII Congress, and to
show what most Cubans would prefer to do if given the chance: go out and
have fun. No one really expected that the Congress would discuss issues
of real importance to the Cuban people, the dissident added.
Ferrer claimed nearly 1,000 people participated in the UNPACU outing
because the organization hired 13 trucks, each capable of transporting
up to 70 people. His numbers could not be independently confirmed, but a
video of the gathering clearly showed an unusually large crowd of
dissidents and other participants.
Ferrer said the outing was organized “with the utmost discretion” to
avoid any government efforts to block it.
“They found out nevertheless, and six of the 15 trucks we had contracted
withdrew at the last minute. They took away six, but we found another
five,” he said.
The unusually large crowd at the UNPACU outing may be the most
significant part of the event; perhaps in indication that Cubans may be
losing their fear of the government.
It has not been a sudden change. But in recent months, and thanks to the
growing use of cellular phones and Wifi access around the island, social
networks have circulated several videos showing that Cubans are starting
to complain against abuses, including arbitrary police crack downs on
dissidents and non-state workers.
The circulation of those videos may well be what government officials
refer to when they have repeatedly warned about the “dangers” of the
Internet and the need to prepare for a “cyberwar.”
UNPACU, which is very active in social networks, has published several
videos of these types of anti-government protests, many of them
spontaneous — and unlike the protests regularly scheduled by the
dissident Ladies in White group and other opposition activists to
highlight the lack of civil and political freedoms in Cuba.
#TodosMarchamos — We All March — a campaign launched by several
opposition groups to demand an end to repression and the release of
political prisoners, posted a You Tube video in early March showing the
silent protest of a young Havana man, his mouth taped over, whose
bicycle-powered taxi had been confiscated by police. When two policemen
try to arrest the man, people in the crowd are heard shouting, “down
with the dictatorship” and “abusers.”
Another video published in March by Univision 23 reporter Mario Vallejo
shows a crowd protesting when police try to arrest a woman in the El
Cerro neighborhood of Havana. When three police officers tried to force
the woman into a patrol car, people in the crowd drag her away and free
her, leaving the police clearly bewildered.
“It is no longer just the political dissidents protesting and pushing
back against police repression but now the people who live alongside
them,” said sociologist Ted Henken, a Baruch College professor who
studies Cuba. Until now, he added, the government has succeeded in
isolating the dissidents from the everyday concerns of the general
population, but that may be changing.
Unclear is how many of the protests are due to an expanding
dissatisfaction or a loss of fear, or both issues combined. And perhaps
more protests are being reported only because it’s easier to record them
and transmit the images abroad.
“It’s very hard to know if there’s more protests and frustration, or
we’re simply seeing more because of the technologies,” said Henken.
“What is important is the fact that inexpensive and ubiquitous
technologies allow both activists and bystanders to film and publish
acts of repression with an ease and immediacy that we have never seen
Sebastian Arcos, deputy director of the Cuban Research Institute at
Florida International University, said that the protests are the result
of the “ideological and economic breakdown of the Cuban regime” that
started with the collapse of the Soviet Union and resulting crash of the
“If the regime can no longer hand out economic privileges like it used
to, and no longer has an ideological justification for its existence, it
begins to lose support. People are frustrated and start to make
spontaneous gestures of rejection toward the regime,” Arcos said. “It is
a natural part of the breakdown of a totalitarian or authoritarian
regime,” he said, that parallel the events that preceded the fall of the
Arcos stressed he does not link the increase in anti-government protests
exclusively to the new Obama administration policy of easing U.S.
sanctions on Cuba.
Henken said, however, that “the Obama charm offensive, masterfully
deployed during his visit to the island,” may have played a role. The
changes in U.S. policy, combined with the reforms launched by Cuban
ruler Raúl Castro, may have helped to generate high hopes among the
island’s population for economic and political improvements.
He added that Castro’s reforms “the internal reforms of the government
have not kept pace with the rising expectations of the people leading to
more frustration and more public protests – a simultaneous loss of fear
of repression or punishment and a growth of discontent and frustration.”
Henken used sociology’s concept of “relative deprivation” to explain the
events. “People don’t protest when things are bad, but instead when they
perceive their situation has worsened compared to their expectations or
the situation of other groups,” he said.
The recent Communist Party congress, which made no significant changes
to Cuba’s economic or political policies, “must have disappointed some
people who had some hope for improvement,” Arcos said.
Increasingly daring complaints against the government also have appeared
among bloggers, activists and journalists, especially those who write
for non-government publications.
Isbel Díaz Torres, a biologist and LGBT rights activist, recently wrote
in the Havana Times web page that Castro’s opening speech to the
Communist Party Congress “made me cringe” because it showed “such grave
gaps in knowledge and so few diplomatic abilities” when the Cuban leader
touched on the issues of human rights.
Ferrer, Arcos and Henken cautioned against excessive optimism.
Although Cuba’s economic crisis may be limiting the resources devoted to
security forces at the Interior Ministry and other state agencies, “the
government still has control of the domestic situation,” Arcos said.
Henken noted the government also can use the new technologies to control
and repress the population in a more effective manner.
Ferrer said that although UNPACU managed to gather hundreds of Santiago
area residents for the kids’ outing, the opposition has limited
financial resources and “the repression still frightens many people. Our
mission is to start reducing that fear, and the regime’s mission is to
keep that fear in the heart of all Cubans.”
“It is a slow and lengthy process” but an inexorable one, said Arcos,
adding that the process might well be described with Castro’s famous
phrase about the pace of his economic reforms: “Without haste but
Source: Cubans getting bolder in acts against government | In Cuba Today